31 Mangosteen studies - summarized
Narace D. Seudeal, Ph.D:
see, as a PhD in Clinical Biochemistry, I refuse to
accept products without the research to back them up.
I mean real hard core scientific studies and not some
wishy washy test that has no relevance to the human
condition. The XanGo mangosteen xanthones research is
extensive and studied by PhD's, MD's and others from
around the world. But, don't take my word for it. Read
the summaries of just a few XanGo mangosteen xanthones
research articles below. You be the judge.
Xanthones Research from Around the World Demonstrate
the Potent Antioxidant Power of the Mangosteen Fruit
have reviewed these selections of mangosteen xanthones
research articles for you and condensed the main conclusions
in easy to read format without much technical jargon,
yet keeping the integrity of the medical findings intact.
Bear in mind this is just a sampling of xanthones research.
Natives of Asia used the mangosteen fruit for hundreds
of years to heal a variety of medical sicknesses and
ailments. They had no clue of the nature of the active
ingredients in their concoctions of this miraculous
fruit. Now, with the extensive mangosteen xanthones
research done worldwide, we now know why those poultices
and potions were so effective in treating so many medical
sicknesses and ailments and endured the test of centuries.
Narace D. Seudeal, Ph.D.
1) Antiproliferation, antioxidation and induction
of apoptosis by Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) on
SKBR3 human breast cancer cell line. J Ethnopharmacol.
2004 Jan;90(1):161-6. Moongkarndi P, Kosem N, Kaslungka
S, Luanratana O, Pongpan N, Neungton N.Department of
Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University,
Sri Ayudthaya Road, Rajdhevee, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.
investigators found that an extract from the pericarp
of the mangosteen fruit (major component in XanGo) inhibited
the growth of breast cancer cells. They also
showed that the extract had potent antioxidant and cancer
cell death properties. They concluded that the extract
from the pericarp of the mangosteen fruit has potential
2) Induction of apoptosis by xanthones from mangosteen
in human leukemia cell lines. Matsumoto K, Akao Y, Kobayashi
E, Ohguchi K, Ito T, Tanaka T, Iinuma M, Nozawa Y. Gifu
International Institute of Biotechnology, 1-1 Naka-Fudogaoka,
Kakamigahara, Gifu 504-0838, Japan. [email protected]
authors examined the effects of six xanthones extracted
from the pericarps of the mangosteen fruit, Garcinia
mangostana, on the cell growth inhibition of human leukemia
cell line HL60. All xanthones displayed growth
inhibitory effects. Among them, alpha-mangostin
(a xanthone) showed the most potent ability to cause
the cancer cells death.
3) Antimycobacterial activity of prenylated xanthones
from the fruits of Garcinia mangostana. Chem Pharm Bull
(Tokyo). 2003 Jul;51(7):857-9. Suksamrarn S, Suwannapoch
N, Phakhodee W, Thanuhiranlert J, Ratananukul P, Chimnoi
N, Suksamrarn A. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of
Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, Thailand.
isolated from the fruit hulls and the edible arils and
seeds of Garcinia mangostana, mangosteen fruit, were
tested for their antituberculosis potential.
The investigators found alpha- and beta-mangostins and
garcinone B exhibited strong inhibitory effect against
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB).
4) Garcinone E, a xanthone derivative, has potent cytotoxic
effect against the patocellular carcinoma cell lines.
Planta Med. 2002 Nov;68(11):975-9. Ho CK, Huang YL,
Chen CC. Department of Medical Research & Education,
Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, ROC.
of hepatocellular carcinomas (liver cancer) with chemotherapy
has generally been disappointing and it is most desirable
to have more effective new drugs. The investigators
extracted and purified 6 xanthone compounds from the
rinds (peel) of the fruit of Garcinia mangostana, mangosteen
fruit. The investigators tested this extract on 14 different
human liver cancer cell lines. Several chemotherapeutic
agents (drugs) were included in the study for comparison.
The results showed that one of the xanthone derivatives
which could be identified as garcinone E has potent
cytotoxic effect (kill cells) on all liver cancer cell
lines as well as on the other gastric and lung cancer
cell lines included in the screen. The investigators
suggested that garcinone E may be potentially useful
for the treatment of certain types of cancer.
5) Inhibitions of histamine release and prostaglandin
E2 synthesis by mangosteen, a Thai medicinal plant.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Sep;25(9):1137-41. Nakatani K,
Atsumi M, Arakawa T, Oosawa K, Shimura S, Nakahata N,
Ohizumi Y. Department of Pharmaceutical Molecular Biology,
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University,
fruit hull of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L., mangosteen
fruit, has been used as a Thai indigenous medicine for
many years. However, its mechanism of action as a medicine
has not been elucidated. The present study was undertaken
to examine the effects of mangosteen fruit extracts
on histamine release and prostaglandin E2 synthesis.
The investigators found the mangosteen fruit extract
strongly inhibited histamine release
and prostaglandin E2 synthesis. This has great importance
in preventing allergies.
6) Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin E2
synthesis by gamma-mangostin, a xanthone derivative
in mangosteen, in C6 rat glioma cells. Biochem Pharmacol.
2002 Jan 1;63(1):73-9. Nakatani K, Nakahata N, Arakawa
T, Yasuda H, Ohizumi Y. Department of Pharmaceutical
Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical
Sciences, Tohoku University, Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku,
980-8578, Sendai, Japan.
fruit hull of mangosteen fruit, Garcinia mangostana
L., has been used for many years as a medicine for treatment
of skin infection, wounds, and diarrhea
in Southeast Asia. In the present study, the investigators
studied the effect of gamma-mangostin, a xanthone contained
in the mangosteen fruit, and showed it had a potent
inhibitory activity of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release.
7) Immunopharmacological activity of polysaccharide
from the pericarp of mangosteen garcinia: phagocytic
intracellular killing activities. J Med Assoc Thai.
1997 Sep;80 Suppl 1:S149-54. Chanarat P, Chanarat N,
Fujihara M, Nagumo T. Department of Clinical Microscopy,
Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University,
from the pericarps of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana
Linn., mangosteen fruit, were extracted from the dried
ground pericarps of the mangosteen fruit. The results
showed that the number of S. enteritidis (bacteria)
in cultured monocyte with extract of the pericarp of
the mangosteen fruit was killed. This paper showed that
polysaccharides in the extract can stimulate phagocytic
cells to kill intracellular bacteria
8) Histaminergic and serotonergic receptor blocking
substances from the medicinal plant Garcinia mangostana.
Planta Med. 1996 Oct;62(5):471-2. Chairungsrilerd N,
Furukawa K, Ohta T, Nozoe S, Ohizumi Y.
investigators studied an extract of the fruit hull of
Mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L., mangosteen fruit.
On the basis of pharmacological data, they determined
that alpha-mangostin and gamma-mangostin (xanthones
in mangostana) are a histaminergic and a serotonergic
receptor blocking agent, respectively. That is, they
have the ability to prevent allergies and inflammation.
9) Inhibition of lipoprotein oxidation by prenylated
xanthones derived from mangostin. Free Radic Res. 2000
Nov;33(5):643-59. Mahabusarakam W, Proudfoot J, Taylor
W, Croft K. Chemistry Department, Prince of Songkla
University, Hat Yai, Thailand.
damage is thought to play a critical role in cardiovascular
and other chronic diseases. This has led to considerable
interest in the antioxidant activity of dietary compounds.
The researchers have previously shown that the xanthone,
mangostin (found in mangosteen fruit), can inhibit the
oxidation of LDL, low density lipoprotein (bad cholesterol).
Researchers studied more xanthone derived compounds
and found enhanced antioxidant activities.
Note: If the oxidation of LDL cholesterol can be prevented
or inhibited, then the LDL-cholesterol cannot exert
its "bad" effect and cause heart disease.
10) Plant-derived leading compounds for chemotherapy
of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Planta
Med. 1998 Mar;64(2):97-109. Vlietinck AJ, De Bruyne
T, Apers S, Pieters LA. Department of Pharmaceutical
Sciences, University of Antwerp (UA), Belgium. [email protected]
investigators showed many compounds of plant origin
have been identified that inhibit different
stages in the replication cycle of human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV). Among these compounds, the xanthone
mangostin, derived from mangosteen fruit, was shown
to inhibit the replication cycle of HIV.
11) Novel types of receptor antagonists from the medicinal
plant Garcinia mangostana [Article in Japanese] Nippon
Yakurigaku Zasshi. 1997 Oct;110 Suppl 1:153P-158P. Furukawa
K, Chairungsrilerd N, Ohta T, Nozoe S, Ohizumi Y. Department
of Pharmaceutical Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical
Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.
the researchers used a crude extract of the fruit hull
of Garcinia mangostana L, mangosteen fruit. On the basis
of physicochemical data, the active substances were
identified as alpha-mangostin and gamma-mangostin in
the crude extract. The researchers found that alpha-Mangostin
and gamma-mangostin may become novel types of lead compounds
for histamine and serotonin receptor antagonists (fight
allergies and inflammation).
12) Pharmacological properties of alpha-mangostin, a
novel histamine H1 receptor antagonist. Eur J Pharmacol.
1996 Oct 31;314(3):351-6. Chairungsrilerd N, Furukawa
K, Ohta T, Nozoe S, Ohizumi Y. Department of Pharmaceutical
Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.
found that alpha-mangostin (found in the mangosteen
fruit) blocked the binding of histamine to its receptors
(fight allergies and inflammation).
13) Antibacterial activity of xanthones from guttiferaeous
plants against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus
aureus. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1996 Aug;48(8):861-5. Iinuma
M, Tosa H, Tanaka T, Asai F, Kobayashi Y, Shimano R,
Miyauchi K. Department of Pharmacognosy, Gifu Pharmaceutical
investigators showed that extracts of Garcinia mangostana,
mangosteen fruit, possessed inhibitory effects against
the growth of S. aureus (staph bacteria). The strong
in-vitro antibacterial activity of
xanthone derivatives against both methicillin-resistant
and methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus suggests
the compounds might find wide pharmaceutical use.
14) Active constituents against HIV-1 protease from
Garcinia mangostana. Planta Med. 1996 Aug;62(4):381-2.
Chen SX, Wan M, Loh BN.
investigators found that an extract of Garcinia mangostana
L., mangosteen fruit, showed potent inhibitory
activity against HIV-1 protease which affects the replication
15) Mangostin inhibits the oxidative modification of
human low density lipoprotein. Free Radic Res. 1995
Aug;23(2):175-84. Williams P, Ongsakul M, Proudfoot
J, Croft K, Beilin L. University of Western Australia,
Department of Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Australia.
oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) may play
an important role in atherosclerosis. The researchers
investigated the possible antioxidant effects of mangostin,
isolated from Garcinia mangostana (found in mangosteen
fruit), on the oxidation of human LDL (bad cholesterol).
From these results, they concluded that mangostin
is acting as a free radical scavenger ("mop
up" sponge) to protect the LDL from oxidative damage
in this in vitro system. In other words, it a
16) Alpha-mangostin induces Ca(2+)-ATPase-dependent
apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway in PC12 cells. J
Pharmacol Sci. 2004 May;95(1):33-40. Sato A, Fujiwara
H, Oku H, Ishiguro K, Ohizumi Y. Department of Pharmaceutical
Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical
Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.
researchers investigated the cell death effects of eight
xanthones on pheochromocytoma (cancer) cells. Among
these compounds, alpha-mangostin, from the fruit hull
of Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen fruit), had the
most potent effect with apoptosis (death) of these cancer
17) Relationship between protective effect of xanthone
on endothelial cells and endogenous nitric oxide synthase
inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem. 2003 Nov 17;11(23):5171-7.
Jiang DJ, Hu GY, Jiang JL, Xiang HL, Deng HW, Li YJ.
Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical
Sciences, Central South University, Changsha 410078,
researchers found that xanthone preserved endothelial
cells inhibited the increased adhesion of monocytes
to endothelial cells induced by oxidized LDL. This is
especially important in preventing plaque formation
and the subsequent blockage of arteries and heart disease.
18) Xanthones as inhibitors of growth of human cancer
cell lines and their effects on the proliferation of
human lymphocytes in vitro. Bioorg Med Chem. 2002 Dec;10(12):3725-30.
Pedro M, Cerqueira F, Sousa ME, Nascimento MS, Pinto
M. Centro de Estudos de Quimica Organica, Fitoquimica
e Farmacologia da Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de
Farmacia, Porto, Portugal. [email protected]
xanthones were assessed for their capacity to inhibit
the in vitro the growth of three human cancer cell lines,
(breast cancer, renal cancer, melanoma). Inhibition
of growth of these cancer cell lines depended
on the type of xanthone used in the study.
19) Xanthones from the green fruit hulls of Garcinia
mangostana. J Nat Prod. 2002 May;65(5):761-3. Suksamrarn
S, Suwannapoch N, Ratananukul P, Aroonlerk N, Suksamrarn
A. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot
University, Bangkok 10110, Thailand. [email protected]
isolated three new xanthones, mangostenol (1), mangostenone
A (2), and mangostenone B (3), from the green fruit
hulls of Garcinia mangostana, mangosteen fruit. NB:
There are about 200 naturally occurring xanthones. The
mangosteen fruit (mangostana garcina) possesses
40 of these xanthones with even more being
discovered via research.
20) Antihypertensive and vasorelaxing activities of
synthetic xanthone derivatives. Bioorg Med Chem. 2002
Mar;10(3):567-72. Wang LW, Kang JJ, Chen IJ, Teng CM,
Lin CN. School of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University,
Kaohsiung, Taiwan 807, ROC.
researchers studied a series of xanthones and related
compounds. The antihypertensive (against high blood
pressure) and vasorelaxing (relaxing of the blood vessels
to prevent high blood pressure) activity of compounds
on cardiovascular system was evaluated. All the compounds
tested exhibited effective hypotensive (lower
blood pressure) activity in anesthetized rats.
21) Antidiabetic activity of a xanthone compound, mangiferin.
Phytomedicine. 2001 Mar;8(2):85-7. Miura T, Ichiki H,
Hashimoto I, Iwamoto N, Kato M, Kubo M, Ishihara E,
Komatsu Y, Okada M, Ishida T, Tanigawa K. Suzuka University
of Medical Science, Mie, Japan.
a xanthone, lowered the blood glucose (sugar)
level in type II diabetic mice. From these
findings, it seems likely that mangiferin exerts its
antidiabetic activity by decreasing insulin resistance.
22) Antiplatelets activity of some xanthone derivatives.
Acta Pol Pharm. 1999 Jul-Aug;56(4):319-24. Rajtar G,
Zolkowska D, Kleinrok Z, Marona H. Department of Pharmacology
and Toxicology, Medical University School, Lublin, Poland.
studied the effects of twelve xanthone derived compounds
on platelet aggregation. They found five of them inhibited
thrombin-induced platelet aggregation (clot
23) Chiral 2-amino-1-butanol xanthone derivatives as
potential antiarrhythmic and hypotensive agents. Acta
Pol Pharm. 1999 Jan-Feb;56(1):87-90. Librowski T, Czarnecki
R, Jastrzebska M. Department of Pharmacodynamics, Collegium
Medicum Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland. Cancer
Lett. 1998 Oct 23;132(1-2):113-7. Xanthones as inhibitors
of Epstein-Barr virus activation. Ito C, Itoigawa M,
Furukawa H, Rao KS, Enjo F, Bu P, Takayasu J, Tokuda
H, Nishino H. Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University,
screened 20 xanthones and found that 3 of them to have
valuable anti-tumor (against cancer) activities.
24) Synthesis and anticonvulsant effects of some aminoalkanolic
derivatives of xanthone. Pharmazie. 1998 Oct;53(10):672-6.
Marona H. Department of Chemical Technology of Drugs,
Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, Krakow,
studied compounds derived from xanthone for anticonvulsant
activities. They found several xanthone derived compounds
to be active in anticonvulsant tests.
25) Mechanism of vasorelaxation of thoracic aorta caused
by xanthone. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Oct 1;336(1):23-8.
Cheng YW, Kang JJ. Institute of Toxicology, College
of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei.
researchers showed vasorelaxation (relaxing
of blood vessels) activity of the xanthones
26) Xanthones as antimalarial agents; studies of a possible
mode of action. FEBS Lett. 1997 Jun 2;409(1):67-73.
Ignatushchenko MV, Winter RW, Bachinger HP, Hinrichs
DJ, Riscoe MK. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular
Biology, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland
showed potent antimalarial activities
for the xanthones studied.
27) Synthesis and antithrombotic effect of xanthone
derivatives. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1996 Sep;48(9):887-90.
Lin CN, Hsieh HK, Liou SJ, Ko HH, Lin HC, Chung MI,
Ko FN, Liu HW, Teng CM. School of Pharmacy, Department
of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical College, Taiwan,
studied several xanthone derived compounds and found
them to possess potent antithrombotic (anti
28) Xanthone derivatives as potential anti-cancer drugs.
J Pharm Pharmacol. 1996 May;48(5):539-44. Lin CN, Liou
SJ, Lee TH, Chuang YC, Won SJ. School of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung
Medical College, Taiwan, Republic of China.
showed xanthone derived compounds to have potent
antitumor activities against human cancer cells.
29) Synthesis and anti-inflammatory effects of xanthone
derivatives. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1996 May;48(5):532-8.
Lin CN, Chung MI, Liou SJ, Lee TH, Wang JP. School of
Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical College, Taiwan, R.O.C.
researchers studied 18 xanthone derived compounds and
found that some of these compounds possessed strong
30) Screening of unsubstituted cyclic compounds as inhibitors
of monoamine oxidases. Biochem Pharmacol. 1994 Jun 15;47(12):2307-10.
Thull U, Testa B. Institut de Chimie Therapeutique,
Ecole de Pharmacie, Universite de Lausanne, Switzerland.
several compounds studied, xanthone emerged as a potent
monoamine oxidase inhibitor.
31) Gamma-pyrone compounds as potential anti-cancer
drugs. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1993 Sep;45(9):791-4. Liou
SS, Shieh WL, Cheng TH, Won SJ, Lin CN. Natural Products
Research Center, Kaohsiung Medical College, Taiwan,
Republic of China.
studied several compounds and found xanthones with enhanced
anti-tumor activity against human cancer cell lines.
are showing that xanthones have positive effects on
nearly all the body's systems, from increased energy
to protection from free radical damage, xanthones delivers
a wide range of benefits." - Fred
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- The Best Source Of Powerful Xanthones
- Vital Antioxidants Support
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And the best part is, XanGo™ is absolutely delicious!
We're all familiar with tonics and potions derived from
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You won't find that with XanGo™. The naturally
sweet and tangy flavor of the Mangosteen is a taste
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has no artificial flavors, no artificial colors, no
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has never been a product like XanGo™! In one singular
drink, you get all of the miraculous benefits of xanthones:
powerful antioxidants protection against free radical
damage, support for cholesterol concerns, a natural
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drink that you'll look forward to tasting!
is the only product to use the whole mangosteen fruit
in a patented formulation, and contains more xanthones
than any other product on earth. Studies are showing
that xanthones have positive effects on nearly all of
the body's systems. From increased energy to protection
from free radical damage, xanthones deliver a wide range
best way to study this is to drink it and see for yourself.
Buy a bottle or a case. Then you will realize the benefits
of drinking XanGo for yourself.
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